James Pennington, formerly a slave in Maryland, moved north and became pastor of a Presbyterian Church in New York City. In 1849 he described how the year before his friend William Harned of the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society had referred a man from his home state of Maryland. His description of Paul Edmondson's situation provides insight into the plight of American slaves and the efforts of activists to relieve their burden.
In the month of September, 1848, there appeared in my study, one morning, in New York City, an aged coloured man of tall and slender form. I saw depicted on his countenance anxiety bordering on despair, still I was confident that he was a man whose mind was accustomed to faith. When I learned that he was a native of my own state, Maryland, having been born in the county of Montgomery, I at once became much interested in him. He had been sent to me by my friend, William Harned, Esq., of the Anti-Slavery Office, 61 John Street. He put into my hand the following bill of distress:--
The old man also showed me letters from other individuals, and one from the Rev. Matthew A. Turner, pastor of Asbury Chapel, where himself and his daughters were members. He was himself free, but his wife was a slave. Those two daughters were two out of fifteen children he had raised for the owner of his wife. These two girls had been sold, along with four brothers, to the traders, for an attempt to escape to the North, and gain their freedom.
On the next Sabbath evening, I threw the case before my people, and the first fifty dollars of the sum was raised to restore the old man his daughters. Subsequently the case was taken up under the management of a committee of ministers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, consisting of the Rev. G. Peck, D.D., Rev. E. E. Griswold, and Rev. D. Curry, and the entire sum of 2,250 dollars, (£450.) was raised for two girls, fourteen and sixteen years of age!
But why this enormous sum for two mere children?
Ah, reader, they were reared under the mildest form of slavery known to the laws of Maryland! The mother is an invalid, and allowed to live with her free husband; but she is a woman of excellent mind, and has bestowed great pains upon her daughters. If you would know, then, why these girls were held at such a price; even to their own father, read the following extract of a letter from one who was actively engaged in behalf of them, and who had several interviews with the traders to induce them to reduce the price, but without success. Writing from Washington, D. C., September 12th, 1848, this gentleman says to William Harned, "The truth is, and is confessed to be, that their destination is prostitution; of this you would be satisfied on seeing them: they are of elegant form, and fine faces."
And such, dear reader, is the sad fate of hundreds of my young countrywomen, natives of my native state. Such is the fate of many who are not only reared under the mildest form of slavery, but of those who have been made acquainted with the milder system of the Prince of Peace.
and Christian ministers, then, talk about the "mildest form of slavery,"--"Christian
masters," &c., I say my feelings are outraged. It is a great
mistake to offer these as an extenuation of the system. It is calculated
to mislead the public mind. The opinion seems to prevail, that the negro,
after having toiled as a slave for centuries to enrich his white brother,
to lay the foundation of his proud institutions, after having been sunk
as low as slavery can sink him, needs now only a second-rate civilization,
a lower standard of civil and religious privileges than the whites claim